Please download the PEI Country fact sheet on Bangladesh (PDF)
Basic facts of the PEI in Bangladesh
- A prolonged Preparatory Phase (2008–2009)resulted in government and UN commitment to broaden the institutional framework for mainstreaming of environment and climate change. Subsequently, a three-year programme document was developed jointly by the Government of Bangladesh, UNDP-Bangladesh and PEI, and signed in December 2009.
- The focus of PEI in Bangladesh is on mainstreaming of poverty reduction, environment sustainability and climate change adaptation.More specifically, and as agreed with the Planning Commission, the focus should be not only on sectoral growth, but also on benefit of poor and marginal farmers, fishers and livestock-dependent households, protection and conservation of environmental services, addressing and adapting to future climate change impacts, namely increasing floods, drought, salinity, cyclone, sea level rise, and waterlogging.
- PEI aims to improve natural resources management and environment outcomes for poor people through mainstreaming pro-poor, gender-sensitive environment and climate change issues into the design and implementation of national development processes, budgets and economic decision-making.
- The programme is led by the Planning Commission’s General Economic Division with partners from others parts of the Ministry of Planning, the planning cadre of sectoral line agencies, and the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
- The budget for PEI Bangladesh amounts to USD 1,000,000 (USD 500,000 from PEI and USD 500,000 from UNDP Bangladesh).
The context of poverty-environment mainstreaming in Bangladesh
- The geographical location of Bangladesh in the confluence and delta of three mighty rivers—Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna—at the head of the Bay of Bengal, and downstream of the eastern Himalayas, makesthe country extremely vulnerable to floods and cyclones.
- Poverty, growth, climate change and environmental sustainability are inextricably bound together in Bangladesh. Half the population is poor and depends on an over-exploited and degraded natural resource base. Environmental factors account for as much as 22 per cent of the national burden of disease. Over two-thirds of the labour force directly depends on environmental resources for their livelihood support.
- The national government and its agencies are divided along sector lines, with limited technical expertise at the ministry level. There are few mechanisms that can effectively ensure that environment and climate change issues are addressed and integrated in policy or project planning.
- The key relevant national agencies include the Planning Commission, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Ministry of Land, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives, and Ministry of Water Resources. Several have developed plans and strategies, but implementation is ad hoc, with a lack of sound information and analysis. The poverty-environment linkages are neither clearly focused nor adequately strategized.
- Targeted national and sector planning documents include: the Outline Perspective Plan, Five-Year Plan, a Three-Year Rolling Investment Programme (called Mid Term Budgetary Framework - MTBF), Sectoral Plan, Annual Development Programme (ADP), and Development Project Proforma (the guiding format for applying for ADP funds).
- The Planning Commission is the custodian of the Annual Development Plan, which includes all major investment projects.
Main activities of the PEI
- Development and dissemination of social and economic analysis of climate change on key development priorities (e.g., agriculture, infrastructure, trade, food security, gender and poverty status)
- Poverty-environment-climate issues integrated into key national and sectoral planning documents, including Perspective Plan and Sixth Five-Year Plan
- National-level training, advocacy and knowledge management on poverty-environment-climate mainstreaming through dissemination of analysis and findings (building on lessons from national-level analysis and field-level scaling up)
- Development of a training module on poverty-environment-climate mainstreaming for Bangladesh Civil Service (Economic) Academy
- Revision of the Development Project Proforma (DPP) to include poverty-environment-climate issues in development planning and appraisal processes
- Improvement of the current development budget (annual development programme: ADP) to ensure adequate investment in poverty-environment-climate-related purposes
- Support for Planning Commission to institutionalize climate mainstreaming process
- Poverty-environment-climate linkages mainstreamed into UNDP programmes, including Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
- Engage with development partners to co-finance next phase of PECM programme
- The Planning Commission leads on drafting the long-term investment plans. Poverty, environment and climate will be integrated into these plans, starting with the agricultural, transport and rural development sectors. This will be achieved by reviewing and revising a sample of sectoral investment projects and then revising the guidance for project design and monitoring.
- Economic analysis of the impacts of climate on key sectors will be summarized and disseminated for planning officers.
- A training package will be developed in the in-house PlanningCommissionAcademy to institutionalize knowledge of climate impacts.
What has been achieved to date?
- PEI Bangladesh has been linked to the UNDAF and is expected to contribute to the outcome “Survival and development rights of vulnerable groups are ensured within environmentally sustainable frameworks”. PEI will also contribute to the country programme outcome “Enhance carrying capacity of the environmental and natural resource base and increase access to sustainable energy services resulting in human and income poverty reduction”.
- The PEI programme was launched by the Planning Minister in July 2010 and the project manager was recruited in August 2010.
- The Steering Committee was set up by the Planning Commission. It includes all key stakeholders and is chaired by the Secretary of the Planning Ministry.
- The PEI programme has reviewed the Perspective Plan and suggested some additional text for incorporating poverty, environment and climate issues into the long-term planning process. Based on recommendations made by the PEI programme, poverty-environment and climate issues are now incorporated in the Perspective Plan.
- The PEI programme provided comments on Part One (Policy Frameworks and Strategic Directions) and Chapter Ten of Part Two (Environment, Climate Change and Disaster Management) of the Sixth Five-Year Plan to ensure that poverty, environment and climate issues are integrated in the plan.
- The PEI programme and CDMP jointly organized a workshop and identified gaps in the Development Project Proforma (DPP) Format and identified the specific clause of the DPP that needs to be revised. Subsequent guidelines are being developed.
- A Socio-Economic Study Team (SEST) has been formed to conduct the Annual Development Programme (ADP) analysis and further analysis of Development Project Proforma of the relevant sector projects through a poverty-environment-climate lens. The SEST provided feedback on the Terms of Reference for the ADP study as well as future study needs.
- Work is underway to integrate poverty, environment and climate into the Annual Development Plan, which includes all major investment projects. This work will begin by addressing the agricultural, transport and rural development sectors.
- The Planning Commission is starting to engage in international debate about climate finance and aid effectiveness as well as the importance of climate finance being included in the regular budget process.
- The Planning Ministry is keen to take a major role in the climate adaptation agenda and so far has been surprisingly overlooked by key development partners in Bangladesh.
- Greater engagement of key sectors is necessary to ensure that climate change concerns are included in the Annual Development Programmes in a way that supports sectoral plans.
- It is important to have data analysis systems for poverty, environment and climate change adaptation that are harmonized and standardized across different agencies and institutions. A set of indicators might help this process.
- Approval of the PEIprogramme has taken a long time to move through formal bureaucratic channels, but the process has led to strong government ownership and buy-in.
- Facilitate timely and high-quality technical support to the Planning Commission to respond to and complement their strong ownership of PEI programme outputs.
- Provide technical support to the Planning Commission for major contract to be awarded through institutional bidding to help review Annual Development Programme and integrate poverty, environment and climate change.
- Summarize and disseminate the economic analysis to be undertaken by Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies of the impacts of climate on key sectors for high-level officials of different ministries and economic cadre officers to advocate for climate mainstreaming.
- Assist the development of a training package in the in-house Planning Commission Academy to institutionalize knowledge of climate impacts in the framework of the Government’s Project to Establish Bangladesh Civil Service (Economic) Academy. PEI project will help develop a curriculum on “Climate Change” and “PEC Mainstreaming”.
Key documents for PEI BangladeshPEI country programme document
- Capacity buidling for the Planning Commission -Poverty, Environment and Climate Mainstreaming, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, UNDP/ PEI, 2010
Influencing policy processes at national level - National development plans and strategies
- National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction II (FY 2009 – 11), Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
- Sixth Five-Year Plan 2011-2016, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 2011 [Part1] [Part 2] [Part 3]
- Outline Perspective Plan of Bangladesh 2010-2021, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 2011
- Socio-Economic Analysis of Annual Development Programme, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh/PEI, 2011 (forthcoming)
Budgeting and financing poverty-environment - Public Expenditure Review
- Climate Public Expenditure Review and Institutional Review, 2011/12, (forthcoming)
- Methodological Note: Climate Public Expenditure Review and Institutional Review, 2011
- Bangladesh - United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2012-2016, 2011
- MDG Needs Assessment and Costing 2009-2015, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
- Policy Study: The probable impacts of climate change on poverty and economic growth and the options of coping with adverse effect of climate changes in Bangladesh: Support to monitoring PRS and MDGs in Bangladesh, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh/UNDP, 2009